Most consumers with severe mental illness (SMI) want to work and
feel that work is an important goal in their recovery. When they
identify work as a goal, consumers usually mean competitive employment,
defined as community jobs that any person can apply for, in integrated
settings (and in regular contact with nondisabled workers), and that
pay at least minimum wage. Unfortunately, assistance with employment is
a major unmet need in most mental health programs: less than 15% of
consumers are competitively employed at any time.
Supported employment is a well-defined approach to helping
people with disabilities participate in the competitive labor market,
helping them find meaningful jobs and providing ongoing support from a
team of professionals. First introduced in the psychiatric
rehabilitation field in the 1980s, supported employment programs are
now found in a variety of service contexts, including community mental
health centers (CMHCs) and psychosocial rehabilitation agencies.
The evidence for the effectiveness of supported employment comes
mainly from two types of research: day treatment conversion studies and
experimental studies. Four studies have examined what happens when day
treatment programs are replaced with a supported employment program. In
every case there was a substantial increase in employment rates. The
percentage of consumers obtaining competitive jobs quadrupled after
conversion of day treatment to supported employment, while competitive
employment rates in centers not converting their services were
unchanged. No negative outcomes were reported in any of these studies,
except a small minority of consumers who missed the social contact in
day treatment. Centers converting to supported employment had
overwhelmingly favorable reactions from consumers, family members, and
A second source of evidence has been 9 carefully controlled experimental studies comparing supported employment to
traditional vocational approaches (e.g., skills training preparation,
sheltered workshops, transitional employment). All 9 studies showed better employment outcomes for consumers receiving supported employment.
Importantly, these studies suggest that supported employment is
superior to other vocational approaches in both urban and rural areas,
for persons of different ethnicities, for both men and women, and for a
wide range of other consumer characteristics. In fact, we have yet to
find any characteristic that would be the basis for excluding someone
from a supported employment program. For example, consumers seem to
benefit more from supported employment than alternative programs
regardless of employment history, clinical history, diagnosis, or,
surprisingly, the presence of co-occurring substance use disorders.
Together, these two lines of research suggest that between 40% and
60% of consumers enrolled in supported employment obtain competitive
employment while less than 20% of similar consumers do so when not
enrolled in supported employment. Other employment outcomes, such as
duration of employment and wages, also generally favor supported
employment programs. Moreover, the beneficial effects of supported
employment are long lasting, as seen in one study that interviewed
consumers 10 years after they were first enrolled.
Many consumers hold more than one competitive job before finding one
that is optimal for them. Research suggests that when consumers have
jobs that match their preferences and capabilities, they are able, with
ongoing assistance from the supported employment team, case managers,
family members, and others, to keep these jobs over a period of time.
Career advancement is a critical issue for all workers. Unfortunately,
job opportunities available to consumers with SMI are often restricted
because of consumers' limited work experience, education, and training.
Consequently, most initial supported employment positions are
unskilled. In addition, most supported employment positions are part
time. Consumers often limit work hours to avoid jeopardizing Social
Security and Medicaid benefits. A continuing challenge for supported
employment programs is helping consumers capitalize on educational and
training opportunities so that they may qualify for skilled jobs and
develop satisfying careers.
Research has identified several critical ingredients of supported
employment that are predictive of improved employment outcomes. These
include the following:
- Services focus on competitive employment:
The agency providing supported employment is committed to competitive
employment as an attainable goal for its consumers with SMI, devoting
its resources for rehabilitation services to this endeavor, rather than
to intermediate activities, such as day treatment or sheltered work.
- Eligibility is based on consumer choice: No one is excluded who wants to participate.
- Rapid job search:
Job search begins soon after a consumer expresses interest in working.
Lengthy pre-employment assessment, counseling, training, and
intermediate work experiences are not required.
- Integration with mental health treatment: Employment specialists coordinate plans with the treatment team (case manager, psychiatrist, etc.).
- Attention to consumer preferences:
Choices and decisions about work and support are individualized based
on the consumer’s preferences, strengths, and experiences.
- Benefits counseling:
Employment specialists provide individualized planning and guidance on
an ongoing basis with each consumer to ensure well-informed and optimal
decisions regarding Social Security and health insurance.
- Time-unlimited and individualized support: Individualized supports are provided to maintain employment, as long as consumers want the assistance.
For a more detailed description, we suggest an outstanding new manual that has just been published: Becker, D. R., & Drake, R. E. (2003). A working life for people with severe mental illness. New York: Oxford Press.
Supported employment programs with greater fidelity to these
principles have been found to have higher employment rates. We use a
"fidelity" rating scale to measure the degree to which a program
follows these practice standards. Already in widespread use, the
15-item Supported Employment Fidelity Scale provides consumers
and family members with a tool to identify local providers who offer
the best practice and to advocate for better services.
Supported employment has not been found to lead to increased risk
for rehospitalization or any other negative outcomes. On the other
hand, enrolling in a supported employment program does not, by itself,
increase quality of life or self esteem. However, consumers who are
employed for a meaningful length of time demonstrate significant
improvements in self-esteem and symptom management compared with
clients who do not work.
Access to supported employment continues to be a problem, despite
extensive evidence showing its effectiveness. Less than 25 percent of
consumers with SMI receive any form of vocational assistance, and only
a fraction of them have access to supported employment. Supported
employment programs are now commonly found in CMHCs in some states, but
their capacity falls far short of the need. Barriers to implementation
of high-quality programs exist at many levels-within federal,
state, and local governments (e.g., insufficient and fragmented
funding, complexity of Medicaid reimbursement policy, lack of attention
to outcomes), within agency or program administrations (e.g.,
resistance to change, preoccupation with financial issues, leadership
issues), among clinicians and supervisors (e.g., low expectations for
recovery, lack of understanding), and in the collaboration with
consumers or families (e.g., lack of information). Information about a
national strategy to address these issues can be found at the New Hampshire-Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center web site.
Consumers and family members can have influence over setting
standards and ensuring adherence to the standards of supported
employment at all levels. They need to know what good services look
like and how to advocate effectively in legislation and funding
decisions. They should seek membership on advisory boards at all
levels. They can collaborate with state officials to fund supported
employment programs and to establish standards according to
evidence-based practices and have them incorporated in licensing
standards, requests for proposals for grant funds, and so on. At the
program level, consumers and family members can demand that entrance
criteria for supported employment be based on a consumer's desire to
work rather than symptoms or work history. They can also participate in
designing supported employment programs. On an individual level,
consumers and family members can advocate for consumer choice and for
services that are proven to be effective.
In conclusion, the main message that we would like to convey is that
supported employment is well defined, it is effective, and it is
relatively easy to implement, compared with many other types of
Reviewed by Gary R. Bond, Ph.D. & Kikuko Campbell, M.P.H., M.A., June 2003
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